The annual catch in the Mediterranean is 800,000 tons of fish, representing 1% of the world's fishing yield. In many areas there has been a significant decrease in yield as a result of over-exploitation and uncontrolled fishing. It is estimated that fishing at Michmoret is 40% lower than in 1980, as a result of fishing that is considerably greater than the production and replacement rate of the fish population, and the destruction of habitats.

Marine mammals compete with the fishermen for the small number of fish, and are sometimes injured or even killed as a result of becoming entangled with fishing equipment.